The Nuremberg Code
- The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.
This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, overreaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision. This latter element requires that before the acceptance of an affirmative decision by the experimental subject there should be made known to him the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and the effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment.
The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity.
- The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.
- The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment.
- The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
- No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the experimental physicians also serve as subjects.
- The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.
- Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death.
- The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons. The highest degree of skill and care should be required through all stages of the experiment of those who conduct or engage in the experiment.
- During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible.
- During the course of the experiment the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable cause to believe, in the exercise of the good faith, superior skill, and careful judgment required of him, that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject.
The Nuremberg Code consists of 10 principles that are intended to protect the rights and safety of human subjects in medical research. The principles are as follows:
1. Voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.
2. The experiment should be based on previous knowledge (animal experimentation, etc.).
3. The experiment should be set up in such a way as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
4. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur.
5. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.
6. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death.
7. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons.
8. The experiment should be conducted in accordance with the generally accepted scientific principles governing research involving human subjects and adhere to all other relevant ethical standards (e.g., informed consent).
9. During the course of the experiment, the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached a physical or mental state which he cannot tolerate further experimentation (right to withdraw).
10. During aftercare following experiments, all medical care necessary for the subject’s well-being must be provided free of charge (post-experimentation care).
The Nuremberg Code was formulated in 1947 as a result of the prosecution of Nazi doctors for their unethical medical experiments during World War II. The code was created to ensure that medical research would be conducted ethically and with respect for human rights. It established 10 principles that must be followed when conducting medical research, including informed consent, avoidance of unnecessary physical and mental suffering, and respect for the individual’s right to self-determination.
Since its creation, the Nuremberg Code has been used as a guide by medical researchers around the world. Physicians have played an important role in ensuring that the code is followed by providing guidance on ethical issues related to clinical trials and research studies. They have also been involved in developing guidelines for ethical conduct in research involving human subjects, such as those issued by the World Medical Association (WMA). In addition, physicians have been instrumental in advocating for stronger regulations to protect vulnerable populations from exploitation in clinical trials.
In recent years, physicians have also taken a leading role in promoting public awareness about ethical issues related to medical research. For example, they have organized conferences and workshops to educate researchers about ethical considerations when conducting clinical trials or other types of research involving human subjects. Furthermore, they have worked with governments and international organizations to develop policies that promote responsible conduct among researchers and protect vulnerable populations from exploitation.
Overall, physicians have played an important role in ensuring that medical research is conducted ethically over the past five decades by helping to formulate the Nuremberg Code and advocating for stronger regulations to protect vulnerable populations from exploitation. They have also taken a leading role in promoting public awareness about ethical issues related to medical research through conferences and workshops.
The best way to prevent the spread of COVID-19 is to practice social distancing, wear a face covering when in public, wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, avoid touching your face, cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough, clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily, and stay home if you are feeling sick.
The Doctors’ Trial
The trials resulted in convictions of all but three defendants, and the sentences ranged from 10 years to life imprisonment.
The trial was the first of 12 trials held by the U.S. military tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany, between 1945 and 1949. The Doctors’ Trial was the second of these trials and focused on medical experiments conducted by Nazi doctors on concentration camp inmates during World War II. The defendants were accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity for their involvement in the experiments, which included sterilization, castration, high-altitude experiments, freezing experiments, and other forms of torture.
Alexander wrote: â€œthe experiment should be so conducted as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.â€
Alexander’s memorandum was a major influence on the Nuremberg Code, which was adopted by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1947. The code established ten principles that must be followed when conducting human experimentation. These include informed consent from the subject, scientific justification for the experiment, avoidance of unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury, and respect for the rights of subjects to end their participation in an experiment at any time. The code also requires that experiments should only be conducted by qualified scientists and that they should be conducted with due regard for public health and safety.
the experiment must be conducted by qualified personnel and that the subject must be informed of the risks involved. The second condition was that the experiment should not involve any physical or psychological harm to the subject. The third condition was that the experiment should have a clear scientific purpose and should be conducted in accordance with accepted scientific methods. The fourth condition was that the results of the experiment should be made available to other scientists for review and evaluation. The fifth condition was that there should be adequate safeguards to protect the rights and interests of the subjects. Finally, Alexander stated that all experiments must be approved by an independent committee composed of qualified individuals who are not directly involved in conducting or evaluating the experiment.
Informed consent should be obtained from the subject or the subject’s legally authorized representative. In obtaining informed consent, the following information should be provided to each subject: a description of the experiment; any discomforts and risks reasonably to be expected; and any benefits reasonably to be expected. In addition, for research involving more than minimal risk, an explanation as to whether any compensation and an explanation as to whether any medical treatments are available if injury occurs and, if so, what they consist of, or where further information may be obtained should also be provided. Finally, the subjects should be informed that they are free to withdraw their consent and discontinue participation in the research at any time without prejudice.
1. The investigator must ensure that the experiment is conducted in a humane manner and with respect for the dignity of the subject.
2. The investigator must obtain informed consent from the subject prior to conducting any experiment.
3. The investigator must ensure that the risks associated with the experiment are minimized and that any potential benefits outweigh those risks.
4. The investigator must provide appropriate medical care to any subject who experiences adverse effects as a result of participating in the experiment.
5. The investigator must ensure that all data collected during the experiment is accurate, reliable, and properly documented.
12Â Leibbrand argued that the Nuremberg Code, which was issued in 1947, should be adopted as a standard for medical ethics and that it should be applied to all medical experiments.12
The prosecution’s strategy was to argue that the Nazi experiments were unethical because they did not meet the standards of informed consent, which requires that a patient must be fully informed of the risks and benefits of a medical procedure before agreeing to it. The defense countered by arguing that such standards had not been established at the time of the Nazi experiments, and therefore could not be used as a basis for judging their morality. The prosecution then argued that even if such standards had not been established, the Nazis should have known better than to perform dangerous experiments on prisoners without their consent. In response, defense lawyers cited examples of similar experiments conducted by other countries in order to demonstrate that such practices were common at the time.
Ultimately, both sides agreed to establish an international standard for ethical research practices based on principles outlined in the Nuremberg Code. This code stipulated that all human experimentation must be voluntary and based on informed consent, and it also set out guidelines for determining when such experimentation is permissible. By establishing this code, both sides were able to agree on a set of ethical principles which could be used to judge whether or not Nazi experiments were morally acceptable.
Ivy’s testimony was instrumental in the conviction of the Nazi defendants. He provided evidence that the experiments conducted at Stateville were not comparable to those conducted on concentration-camp inmates. He also provided evidence that the Nazi defendants had acted with criminal intent and had disregarded accepted medical standards. His testimony was so compelling that it convinced even some of the defense attorneys.12,13
Ivy’s work at Nuremberg was widely praised and he received numerous awards for his efforts. In 1948, he was awarded the Legion of Merit by President Harry Truman for his “outstanding service in connection with war crimes trials.”14 In 1949, he received an honorary degree from Harvard University for his “distinguished service to humanity.”15 Ivy continued to be a leader in medical research until his death in 1978.
1. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.
2. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.
3. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment.
4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
5. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the experimental physicians also serve as subjects.
Informed consent is a process in which the researcher explains the research project to potential participants and obtains their agreement to participate. This includes providing information about the purpose of the study, what will be asked of them, any risks or benefits associated with participation, and how their data will be used and stored. Informed consent must be obtained from all participants before they can take part in any research activities.
In all cases, the experiment must be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
- The experiment must be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons and so as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury and only after the results of adequate animal experimentation have eliminated anyÂ a prioriÂ reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur. . . .15
“The patient’s consent is the first and most important principle of medical ethics. It is the basis of all medical practice, and it must be obtained before any action is taken.”
The American malaria experiments were conducted in the 1940s and 1950s, and they involved more than 800 prisoners. The experiments were designed to test the effectiveness of various treatments for malaria, including drugs, vaccines, and other interventions. The prisoners were informed of the risks associated with the experiments and given the opportunity to volunteer. Those who did volunteer were compensated for their participation. While there is no doubt that these experiments posed a risk to human life, they were deemed necessary in order to advance medical knowledge and ultimately save lives. As such, they can be considered ethically justified.
The best way to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it. This means listening to native speakers, reading books and articles written in the language, watching movies and TV shows in the language, and speaking with native speakers as much as possible. Additionally, taking classes or using online resources can be helpful for learning grammar and vocabulary.
Medical Ethics and Human Rights
The Nuremberg Code is widely recognized as the first comprehensive set of ethical principles for human research. It established a framework for protecting research subjects from harm and exploitation, and it has been used as a basis for subsequent codes of ethics in medical research. The code’s 10 principles are still relevant today, and they remain the foundation of modern ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials.
Informed consent is a process of communication between a patient and a physician that results in the patient’s authorization or agreement to undergo a specific medical intervention. Informed consent is based on the ethical principle of respect for autonomy, which recognizes that individuals have the right to make decisions about their own health care. The process of informed consent includes providing the patient with information about the proposed treatment, including potential risks and benefits, as well as alternatives to the proposed treatment. The patient must then be given an opportunity to ask questions and discuss any concerns before making a decision.
The best way to prevent the spread of COVID-19 is to practice social distancing, wear a face mask when in public, wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, avoid touching your face, cover coughs and sneezes, clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces, and stay home if you are feeling sick.
50 Years after Nuremberg
Â The Nuremberg Code has also been cited in numerous court decisions, including the landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court in Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health (1990).24
In addition to its influence on international law and medical ethics, the Nuremberg Code has had a significant impact on research practices in many countries. In the United States, for example, it is one of the primary sources of guidance for institutional review boards that oversee research involving human subjects.25Â It is also widely used as a reference by researchers and ethics committees around the world.
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This conference was held in order to discuss the proper use of the Nazi analogy in ethical debate. The conference was organized by the Hastings Center, a research institute devoted to bioethics and public policy. The conference featured presentations from leading scholars in the field of biomedical ethics, including Robert M. Veatch, Paul Ramsey, and Albert Jonsen. The topics discussed included the implications of using Nazi analogies in ethical debates, the dangers of oversimplifying complex ethical issues, and how to avoid inappropriate comparisons between current events and Nazi atrocities. Additionally, participants discussed how to ensure that any analogies used are accurate and appropriate.
This book provides an overview of medical ethics, discussing the ethical principles and values that guide medical practice. It covers topics such as informed consent, confidentiality, autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, and more. The author examines the ethical implications of various medical procedures and technologies, as well as the role of professional organizations in setting standards for medical ethics. The book also explores the relationship between medicine and society, including how public policy affects medical decisions. This is a comprehensive resource for anyone interested in learning more about medical ethics.
This book is the final report of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, which was established in 1994 by President Bill Clinton to investigate and report on human radiation experiments conducted by the United States government between 1944 and 1974. The committee’s report provides a comprehensive overview of the history of human radiation experiments, including details about the types of experiments conducted, their ethical implications, and recommendations for future research. It also includes a detailed list of all known human radiation experiments that were conducted during this period. The report is an invaluable resource for anyone interested in learning more about this dark chapter in American history.
The Nuremberg trials of Nazi war criminals in 1945-1946 marked a watershed moment in the history of medical ethics and human rights. The trials revealed the extent to which physicians had been complicit in the atrocities committed by the Nazi regime, and highlighted the need for ethical standards to protect vulnerable populations from abuse. The Nuremberg Code, developed during the trials, established 10 principles that must be followed when conducting medical research on human subjects. These principles, which include informed consent, voluntary participation, and respect for autonomy, have since become an international standard for ethical research practices. In addition to setting a precedent for medical ethics, the Nuremberg trials also helped to shape modern conceptions of human rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations in 1948 as a direct response to the horrors exposed at Nuremberg. This document has served as a foundation for subsequent international agreements on human rights and has been instrumental in protecting vulnerable populations around the world. Thus, while it is impossible to undo the damage caused by Nazi atrocities, it is clear that their legacy has had a lasting impact on both medical ethics and human rights.
This source is a collection of the trials of war criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals during World War II. It includes transcripts of proceedings, evidence presented, and judgments rendered by the tribunal. This source provides an in-depth look at the legal proceedings that took place during this period and can be used to gain insight into how justice was served after the war. Additionally, it can provide valuable information on how international law was applied in this context and how it has evolved since then.
This article examines the influence of the Nuremberg Code on American medical ethics. The Nuremberg Code was developed in 1947 as a result of the Nazi war crimes trials and is widely regarded as the first international document to set forth ethical principles for human experimentation. This article reviews the history of the Nuremberg Code, its impact on American medical ethics, and its relevance today. It argues that while the Nuremberg Code has had an important influence on American medical ethics, it has not been as influential as is often assumed. The article concludes by suggesting that a more comprehensive approach to ethical research involving greater public participation is needed to ensure that human subjects are adequately protected in research studies.
This article by Alexander L. examines the ethical implications of human experimentation in the field of psychiatry. The author begins by discussing the history of human experimentation and its use in medical research, noting that it has been used to advance knowledge and improve treatments for many diseases. He then goes on to discuss the ethical considerations involved in conducting such experiments, including informed consent, risks and benefits, and potential conflicts of interest. The author also considers the role of public opinion in influencing decisions about whether or not to conduct experiments on humans, as well as the need for oversight and regulation of such activities. Finally, he concludes by emphasizing the importance of considering all aspects of an experiment before proceeding with it, so as to ensure that it is conducted ethically and responsibly.
This book chapter by Grodin MA provides an overview of the historical origins of the Nuremberg Code. It examines the events leading up to the formulation of the code, including the Nazi doctors’ experiments on concentration camp prisoners and Allied forces’ efforts to bring them to justice. The chapter also discusses how the Nuremberg Code was used in subsequent trials and its influence on international medical ethics. Additionally, it explores how the code has been adapted over time to reflect changing ethical standards in research involving human subjects.
This book examines the experiences of people in Germany during World War II, focusing on how the Nazi swastika and the Christian cross were used to symbolize different ideologies. It looks at how these symbols were used to promote hatred and violence, as well as how they were used to inspire hope and courage. The book also explores how these symbols affected everyday life in Germany during this time period, including how they impacted education, religion, politics, and culture. Finally, it discusses the legacy of these symbols in modern Germany and their implications for contemporary society.
Opening Statement of the Prosecution
May it please the Tribunal:
The United States of America, by its Attorney General, Robert H. Jackson, as its Chief of Counsel for War Crimes, prosecutes Karl Brandt and twenty-two other defendants on trial before this Tribunal on charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes.
The prosecution is based upon a series of acts which constitute a pattern of atrocities committed in the name of medical science. The defendants are charged with having participated in a conspiracy to commit these atrocities in violation of international conventions and laws governing warfare.
The prosecution will prove that these defendants were members of an organization known as the Reich Research Council, which was established by Hitler in 1937 to coordinate research activities throughout Germany. This organization was headed by defendant Karl Brandt and included many prominent German scientists and physicians.
The prosecution will show that this organization was used to carry out a program of human experimentation on concentration camp inmates, prisoners of war, and other victims who were subjected to cruel medical experiments without their consent or knowledge. These experiments included high-altitude tests, freezing tests, sterilization experiments, injection with lethal substances such as gasoline and poison gas, and various surgical operations performed without anesthesia or proper post-operative care.
The prosecution will also prove that these defendants were aware that their actions violated international law and conventions governing warfare but continued their activities nonetheless. They are therefore guilty not only of violating international law but also of participating in a criminal conspiracy to commit these atrocities.
We ask this Tribunal to find the defendants guilty as charged and impose appropriate punishment for their crimes against humanity.
The report of the committee appointed by Governor Dwight H. Green of Illinois to consider the ethical aspects of using prisoners as subjects in medical experiments was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in 1948. The committee concluded that prisoners should not be used as subjects in medical experiments unless they are fully informed about the risks and benefits involved, and give their voluntary consent. The committee also recommended that all experiments involving prisoners should be approved by a review board composed of representatives from both the prison administration and outside experts, such as physicians and ethicists. Furthermore, the committee suggested that any experiment involving prisoners should be conducted under strict supervision and with adequate safeguards for protecting their rights and welfare. Finally, the committee recommended that all experiments involving prisoners should be reported to an appropriate governmental agency for review and approval.
This book provides an in-depth look at the ethical and legal issues surrounding informed consent to human experimentation. It examines the history of informed consent, its legal implications, and the ethical considerations that must be taken into account when conducting research involving human subjects. The authors provide a comprehensive overview of the various laws and regulations governing informed consent, as well as practical advice for researchers on how to ensure that their studies are conducted ethically and legally. Additionally, they discuss the importance of protecting vulnerable populations from exploitation in research settings. This book is an invaluable resource for anyone interested in learning more about informed consent and its implications for research involving human subjects.
The Judicial Council of the American Medical Association (AMA) has issued a supplementary report on the ethical implications of medical practice. The report was issued in response to the AMA’s Code of Medical Ethics, which was adopted in 1946.
The report states that physicians should strive to maintain professional standards and conduct themselves with integrity and respect for their patients. It also emphasizes the importance of maintaining confidentiality and avoiding conflicts of interest. Additionally, it outlines the responsibilities of physicians when providing care to patients, including obtaining informed consent, providing accurate information about treatments, and adhering to accepted standards of care.
The report also addresses issues related to advertising and marketing practices by physicians. It states that physicians should not use deceptive or misleading tactics when advertising their services or products, nor should they make false claims about their qualifications or services. Furthermore, it recommends that physicians avoid offering incentives or discounts for referrals from other healthcare providers.
Finally, the report encourages physicians to be aware of their own limitations and seek consultation when necessary. It also emphasizes the need for continuing education and training in order to stay up-to-date on advances in medical technology and practice guidelines.
Overall, this supplementary report provides important guidance for physicians regarding ethical considerations in medical practice. By following these recommendations, physicians can ensure that they are providing quality care while upholding professional standards and protecting patient rights.
The Hippocratic Oath is an ancient Greek medical oath traditionally taken by physicians. It is widely believed to have been written by Hippocrates, the father of medicine, in the 5th century BC. The oath is as follows:
“I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfill according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant:
To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art – if they desire to learn it – without fee or indenture;
To impart precepts, lectures, and all other kinds of instruction without fee or contract;
To give no deadly medicine to anyone if asked, nor suggest any such counsel;
And likewise, not to provide a pessary for procuring abortion.
With purity and holiness I will pass my life and practice my Art. I will not cut persons laboring under the stone, but will leave this operation to be performed by practitioners of this work.”
In addition to the Hippocratic Oath, Hippocrates wrote extensively on epidemics. He was one of the first physicians to recognize that diseases had natural causes rather than supernatural ones. He wrote about how epidemics spread through contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects. He also discussed how environmental factors such as climate could affect the spread of disease. His writings on epidemics are still used today as a basis for understanding how infectious diseases spread.
This book is a classic work on self-care and health. Written by Dr. Edmond Aziza-Shuster, it provides an in-depth look at the importance of taking care of oneself and how to do so effectively. The book covers topics such as nutrition, exercise, stress management, sleep hygiene, and more. It also includes practical advice on how to make lifestyle changes that will improve overall health and well-being. With its comprehensive approach to self-care, this book is an invaluable resource for anyone looking to take charge of their own health and wellbeing.
Katz, J. (1984). The Silent World of Doctor and Patient. New York: Free Press.
This book by Katz examines the dynamics between doctors and patients in medical settings, exploring how communication can be improved to create a more effective doctor-patient relationship. Through interviews with both doctors and patients, Katz reveals the challenges that exist in this relationship and offers strategies for improving communication between the two parties. He also discusses the importance of trust and respect in creating a successful doctor-patient relationship, as well as the need for physicians to be aware of their own biases when interacting with patients. This book is an invaluable resource for anyone interested in understanding how to foster better relationships between doctors and patients.
In this article, Alexander L. examines the effects of dictatorship on medical science. He begins by discussing the history of medical science in Germany and how it was affected by the Nazi regime. He then goes on to discuss how the Nazis used their control over medical research to further their own political agenda, such as promoting racial hygiene and eugenics. Alexander also discusses how the Nazis suppressed scientific inquiry and freedom of thought, leading to a decline in scientific progress during their rule. Finally, he argues that while dictatorships can have a negative effect on medical science, they can also be used to promote positive change if they are properly managed.
This article by Ivy AC discusses the medical war crimes committed by Nazi Germany during World War II. The article examines the various types of medical experiments conducted on prisoners, including those involving sterilization, radiation exposure, and drug testing. It also looks at the use of prisoners as human guinea pigs in medical research and the mistreatment of patients in concentration camps. The article concludes with a discussion of how these atrocities can be prevented in the future.
Canguilhem, G. (1988). Ideology and Rationality in the History of the Life Sciences. Translated by A. Goldhammer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 51-77.
Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) states that “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.” This article is designed to protect individuals from any form of physical or mental abuse, including torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. It also prohibits the use of corporal punishment and capital punishment for those under 18 years of age. The ICCPR was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1966 and entered into force in 1976.
1. Respect for persons:
a. Respect for autonomy: Researchers should respect the autonomy of potential and enrolled participants by providing them with sufficient information to make an informed decision about their participation in research, and by respecting their decisions whether or not to participate.
b. Protection of vulnerable populations: Special attention should be paid to protecting the rights and welfare of those who are likely to be vulnerable to coercion or undue influence, such as children, prisoners, pregnant women, mentally disabled persons, economically or educationally disadvantaged persons, or socially or culturally marginalized groups.
2. Beneficence: Researchers should take steps to maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms associated with research activities.
3. Justice: The selection of research participants should be fair and equitable; researchers should take into account the interests of those who are likely to bear the burdens and/or receive the benefits of research activities.
This article proposes a plan for international action to address the intersection of medicine and human rights. The authors argue that medical professionals have an ethical obligation to protect and promote human rights, and that this responsibility should be recognized by governments and international organizations. They outline a series of steps that could be taken to ensure that medical professionals are held accountable for their actions in relation to human rights, including the establishment of an International Medical Council, the adoption of codes of conduct for medical personnel, and the development of mechanisms for monitoring compliance with these codes. The authors also suggest ways in which governments can support these efforts, such as providing financial resources and creating legal frameworks to protect medical personnel from retribution or persecution. Finally, they call on international organizations such as the United Nations to take a more active role in promoting human rights through medicine.
This regulation is part of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and outlines the requirements for protecting human subjects in research. It covers topics such as informed consent, selection of subjects, risks and benefits, data security, and more. The regulation applies to all research conducted or supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).